Posted by: Ed Darrell | September 2, 2010

The Declaration of Independence

Students, read this document:

Declaration of Independence

[Here is the complete text of the Declaration of Independence.
The original spelling and capitalization have been retained. ]

(Adopted by Congress on July 4, 1776)

The Unanimous Declaration
of the Thirteen United States of America

When, in the course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the laws of nature and of nature’s God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.

We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights, that among these are life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness. That to secure these rights, governments are instituted among men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed. That whenever any form of government becomes destructive to these ends, it is the right of the people to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their safety and happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate that governments long established should not be changed for light and transient causes; and accordingly all experience hath shown that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed. But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same object evinces a design to reduce them under absolute despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such government, and to provide new guards for their future security. –Such has been the patient sufferance of these colonies; and such is now the necessity which constrains them to alter their former systems of government. The history of the present King of Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations, all having in direct object the establishment of an absolute tyranny over these states. To prove this, let facts be submitted to a candid world.

Image of Declaration of Independence, Wm Stone's 1823 image (Wikipedia)

Copy of the image of the Declaration of Independence made in 1823 by William Stone. Wikpedia image

He has refused his assent to laws, the most wholesome and necessary for the public good.

He has forbidden his governors to pass laws of immediate and pressing importance, unless suspended in their operation till his assent should be obtained; and when so suspended, he has utterly neglected to attend to them.

He has refused to pass other laws for the accommodation of large districts of people, unless those people would relinquish the right of representation in the legislature, a right inestimable to them and formidable to tyrants only.

He has called together legislative bodies at places unusual, uncomfortable, and distant from the depository of their public records, for the sole purpose of fatiguing them into compliance with his measures.

He has dissolved representative houses repeatedly, for opposing with manly firmness his invasions on the rights of the people.

He has refused for a long time, after such dissolutions, to cause others to be elected; whereby the legislative powers, incapable of annihilation, have returned to the people at large for their exercise; the state remaining in the meantime exposed to all the dangers of invasion from without, and convulsions within.

He has endeavored to prevent the population of these states; for that purpose obstructing the laws for naturalization of foreigners; refusing to pass others to encourage their migration hither, and raising the conditions of new appropriations of lands.

He has obstructed the administration of justice, by refusing his assent to laws for establishing judiciary powers.

He has made judges dependent on his will alone, for the tenure of their offices, and the amount and payment of their salaries.

He has erected a multitude of new offices, and sent hither swarms of officers to harass our people, and eat out their substance.

He has kept among us, in times of peace, standing armies without the consent of our legislature.

He has affected to render the military independent of and superior to civil power.

He has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction foreign to our constitution, and unacknowledged by our laws; giving his assent to their acts of pretended legislation:

For quartering large bodies of armed troops among us:

For protecting them, by mock trial, from punishment for any murders which they should commit on the inhabitants of these states:

For cutting off our trade with all parts of the world:

For imposing taxes on us without our consent:

For depriving us in many cases, of the benefits of trial by jury:

For transporting us beyond seas to be tried for pretended offenses:

For abolishing the free system of English laws in a neighboring province, establishing therein an arbitrary government, and enlarging its boundaries so as to render it at once an example and fit instrument for introducing the same absolute rule in these colonies:

For taking away our charters, abolishing our most valuable laws, and altering fundamentally the forms of our governments:

For suspending our own legislatures, and declaring themselves invested with power to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever.

He has abdicated government here, by declaring us out of his protection and waging war against us.

He has plundered our seas, ravaged our coasts, burned our towns, and destroyed the lives of our people.

He is at this time transporting large armies of foreign mercenaries to complete the works of death, desolation and tyranny, already begun with circumstances of cruelty and perfidy scarcely paralleled in the most barbarous ages, and totally unworthy the head of a civilized nation.

He has constrained our fellow citizens taken captive on the high seas to bear arms against their country, to become the executioners of their friends and brethren, or to fall themselves by their hands.

He has excited domestic insurrections amongst us, and has endeavored to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers, the merciless Indian savages, whose known rule of warfare, is undistinguished destruction of all ages, sexes and conditions.

In every stage of these oppressions we have petitioned for redress in the most humble terms: our repeated petitions have been answered only by repeated injury. A prince, whose character is thus marked by every act which may define a tyrant, is unfit to be the ruler of a free people.

Nor have we been wanting in attention to our British brethren. We have warned them from time to time of attempts by their legislature to extend an unwarrantable jurisdiction over us. We have reminded them of the circumstances of our emigration and settlement here. We have appealed to their native justice and magnanimity, and we have conjured them by the ties of our common kindred to disavow these usurpations, which, would inevitably interrupt our connections and correspondence. They too have been deaf to the voice of justice and of consanguinity. We must, therefore, acquiesce in the necessity, which denounces our separation, and hold them, as we hold the rest of mankind, enemies in war, in peace friends.

We, therefore, the representatives of the United States of America, in General Congress, assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the world for the rectitude of our intentions, do, in the name, and by the authority of the good people of these colonies, solemnly publish and declare, that these united colonies are, and of right ought to be free and independent states; that they are absolved from all allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connection between them and the state of Great Britain, is and ought to be totally dissolved; and that as free and independent states, they have full power to levy war, conclude peace, contract alliances, establish commerce, and to do all other acts and things which independent states may of right do. And for the support of this declaration, with a firm reliance on the protection of Divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our lives, our fortunes and our sacred honor.

New Hampshire: Josiah Bartlett, William Whipple, Matthew Thornton

Massachusetts: John Hancock, Samual Adams, John Adams, Robert Treat Paine, Elbridge Gerry

Rhode Island: Stephen Hopkins, William Ellery

Connecticut: Roger Sherman, Samuel Huntington, William Williams, Oliver Wolcott

New York: William Floyd, Philip Livingston, Francis Lewis, Lewis Morris

New Jersey: Richard Stockton, John Witherspoon, Francis Hopkinson, John Hart, Abraham Clark

Pennsylvania: Robert Morris, Benjamin Rush, Benjamin Franklin, John Morton, George Clymer, James Smith, George Taylor, James Wilson, George Ross

Delaware: Caesar Rodney, George Read, Thomas McKean

Maryland: Samuel Chase, William Paca, Thomas Stone, Charles Carroll of Carrollton

Virginia: George Wythe, Richard Henry Lee, Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin Harrison, Thomas Nelson, Jr., Francis Lightfoot Lee, Carter Braxton

North Carolina: William Hooper, Joseph Hewes, John Penn

South Carolina: Edward Rutledge, Thomas Heyward, Jr., Thomas Lynch, Jr., Arthur Middleton

Georgia: Button Gwinnett, Lyman Hall, George Walton

Source: The Pennsylvania Packet, July 8, 1776

Resources, More Information:


  1. Hello Mr. Darrell,

    I took a quick glance at some of your posts. I’ll read more when i get a chance again.

  2. Hey whats up Mr.Darrell,

    This little article was good information to read. Hopefully I learn more in Class.

    LaQuinn Drake

  3. How’s it going Mr. Darrell,

    I just got done reading this article, and it took me forever. So I am expecting my passing grade. Can’t wait for your class today!!


  4. The Panther Movement Is Still In Effect.

  5. sup mr. darrell

  6. why won’t you write back

    • I write back when I get a chance, Eli — at 9:21 I was teaching class.

  7. hey mr. darrell,

    its eli
    i read the declaration of independance and it teached me alot about wrestling

  8. what are you doing darrell

  9. whats your twitter account mr darrell

    • @MrDarrellMolina

    • You can subscribe to the Twitter tweets by using the button at the bottom of the right-hand column.

  10. i made a twitter just for you mr darrell

  11. hi mr darrell

  12. sup

  13. do you like wrestling mr darrell

    • I enjoy watching wrestling — when I was in high school, our school won the state championship for the first time. Several of my classmates stuck with it — Steve Sanderson was a year behind me, and he is the father of the Sanderson brothers who established that wrestling dynasty at Iowa State University. Coby Sanderson won the gold medal at the last Olympics.

  14. hey do you have frank in a clas mr darrell

  15. can you tweet with me mr darrell

  16. hey mr darrel when are you gonna write back

  17. hey add me on facebook

    • Eli, you have to add yourself on Facebook, if you have a Facebook account. If you do, just click “like” on Mr. Darrell’s U.S. History.

  18. i cant wat to see you today mr darell

  19. Hey, Mr. Darrell, you fellin’ good?
    I hope so cause I enjoy your class when you’re in a good mood.
    Sooooo, I see you’re into history.
    that’s cool.
    I am, too.
    But mostly between the years of 1966-1976.
    Ten years of the Panthers.

    See ya!

    • how are the panthers doing at this time are they doing pretty well

    • What’s that even mean Sam?

  20. hey mr darrell im in your 8 period

  21. I finally had enough time to read this.


  23. love your class Mr.Darrell

  24. Hey, Mr. Darrell it was pretty darn hard to find a computer to work with but fortunately I found one! anyway. Today was pretty coo’ in 5th period! tomorrow will be a freakin blast!

  25. i read like u told me to now wer ma hundred at

  26. Maurilio, did I fail to mention that I knock off points for spelling, jargon, slang and punctuation?

    Just kidding, you hope!

  27. Hello Mr. Darell,

    I finally had the chance to ready your articles. I found it pretty interesting.

  28. I was here!!!!

  29. I read it!!!
    I was here…

  30. I, also, am here! and it was actually a more interesting read that I thought

  31. Hey Mr.Darrell It’s Me Malenie I Finally Read This And Yes Very Informative:) I Hope This Puts Me In Passing ( I’m In Your 7th Period By The Way )

  32. I was here

  33. This gana me a lot of info thanks mr darrel

  34. Hey, Mr Darell:

    I came to the Libary to take a look on ur web-site and to get a passing grade and i found the web-site to be an interesting web-site thanks.

  35. Hey it’s Jennifer from your 7th period, I read it.

  36. i have read this other piece of information.
    i find it very interesting.

  37. Wow, That was interesting and i actually enjoyed it thanks Mr.Darrell!!

  38. it’s interesting when i think of this piece of information.

  39. hey Mr. darrell this is me Banessa for your 3rd period i ready the website in i think is very interesting. In have a important information

  40. im here give me my grade

  41. hi mr. darrel… now give a grade because i need to pass this class…

  42. i want my grade

  43. i want to learn as much as i can from you because it seems interesting and you look that guy from KFC and the monopoly man

  44. like the website and danks 4 the links

  45. i like the website and is very interesting

  46. was up sir darrel is me just leaving a comment on this awsome web site i just enjoyed all the extrea help that you provided for us tanks :)

  47. It is a very good and intresting article gave me alot information.

  48. Wassup wit it mr.Darell.

  49. Hello!

  50. sup Mr. Darell

    • Just wondering if you found the Declaration as boring as the Constitution. Did you?

  51. hi mr. darrel i read this.

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