Posted by: Ed Darrell | April 25, 2011

2011 TAKS Review, Part 6: Progressive Era and World War I

Courtesy of George Blair’s site to assist students at Samuel Clemens High School in Schertz, Texas — from his Big Stick Social Studies site — a review of things you need to know for the Progressive Era and World War I, which should help get you through the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) for Social Studies (11th grade, or Exit Level):

Progressive Era and World War I

1898 Spanish-American War: USS Maine attacked Feb. 15, US defeated Spain in war, gained control of Cuba, Puerto Rico, the Philippines and Guam, Rough Riders, San Juan Hill; the United States stepped out onto the stage of international relations, becoming a major nation to contend with
Spanish-American War USS Maine exploded in Havana Harbor (Cuba) Feb. 15, 1898; US defeated Spain, gained control of Cuba, Puerto Rico, the Philippines and Guam; Teddy Roosevelt and the Rough Riders, Battle of San Juan Hill; Admiral Dewey and the Battle of Manila Bay
Expansionism The belief in the early 20th century that the United States needed to grow outside its continental boundaries, areas of expansion included American control of the Caribbean, building of the Panama Canal, acquisition of islands in the Pacific to be used as coaling stations for U.S. ships
Panama Canal Built between 1901-1914, provides shortcut across narrowest portion of Central America to connect Atlantic and Pacific Oceans; cost 5,000 lives to construct (most lives lost to tropical diseases like Yellow Fever and malaria), 50 mile long canal
Theodore Roosevelt 26th US president (1901-09); hero of Spanish-American War, moved U.S. into position as a world power, reform president during progressive period, conservationist, founder Bull Moose Party; “Speak softly, but I carry a big stick!” Square Deal, Rough Riders
World power A nation becoming a dominant force throughout the world, this process usually involves colonization, having a strong military presence, and the protection of countries weaker than it against other world powers
Reform The need to change things for the better, some of the major areas of reform in US history were abolition of slavery, working conditions and pay, moral issues, muckrakers, prohibition, Second Great Awakening, spoils system, urban welfare, women and children in the workplace, civil rights, business practices
16th Amendment Established a national income tax (1913), Congress has power to tax individual incomes
17th Amendment Allowed voters to choose US senators (1913), before 17th amendment US senators were chosen by state legislatures, examples of popular sovereignty
W.E.B. DuBois Early 20th-century African-American political leader; early member/ founder of National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP); first Black to receive Ph.D. from Harvard University
Susan B. Anthony Leader of SUFFRAGETTE (women’s voting rights) movement in 19th century, 1872 arrested in NY for trying to vote, 19th Amendment approved 13 years after her death
19th Amendment Equal voting rights for women in federal and state elections (1920), women’s suffrage amendment (“suffrage” means “right to vote”)
Imperialism Domination of one country by another, the quest for colonial empires, examples for the United States: Hawaii, Spanish-American War, Philippines, Panama Canal, Latin America, Mexican Revolution
Militarism To glorify military strength – before World War I the arms race by major European powers developed large armies and more powerful weapons than their rivals, strong nations began to form alliances to add even more strength to their military might
Nationalism National pride or loyalty – a cause of World War I which began in the Balkans with rival national groups, led to assassination of Archduke Ferdinand which started World War I
1914-1918 World War I: Involved most of Europe, US, Allies vs. Central Powers, U-boats sink Lusitania – 128 US killed and US enters war in 1917, war noteworthy because of cost, number of killed, and use of aircraft, tanks, poison gas and machine guns
World War I From 1914 to1918: “The Great War” and “War to End All Wars”, involved most of Europe, Allies vs. Central Powers, noteworthy because of cost, number of killed, and use of aircraft, tanks, poison gas and machine guns; US entery was in 1917 after U-boats resumed targeting U.S. ships (U.S. did NOT enter war after 1915 sinking of the Lusitania – 128 US killed — because Germany promised to leave U.S.ships alone): Zimmerman Telegram – German Foreign Minister Zimmerman telegraphed German Embassy in Mexico City to offer Mexico Texas and New Mexico, if Mexico would just attack U.S., to keep U.S. out of war in Europe, but the telegram was intercepted, decoded and released to the public; Mexico did nothing, U.S. entered war in Europe against Germany
Unrestricted submarine warfare Germany’s policy of sinking any ships on the seas to prevent war supplies from reaching its enemies, England and France, this practice forced the US into World War I in 1917
Woodrow Wilson 28th President (1913-21); president during World War 1, Wilson in his 14 Points offered conditions for ending World War I and called for creation of League of Nations to settle differences between countries, Progressive Democrat
Wilson’s Fourteen Points President Wilson’s plan for the post-World War I world, included SELF- DETERMINATION (self-rule) for small countries and League of Nations (pre-UN), freedom of the seas; Wilson’s plan called for no great punishment of the aggressor nations, such as Germany (see Treaty of Versailles)
Treaty of Versailles Peace treaty ending World War 1, declared Allies winners of the war and set out terms of German REPARATIONS (payment for war damages), mostly ignored Wilson’s 14 Points, but did include the creation of the League of Nations (which the U.S. Senate refused to allow the U.S. to join).

Watch for the other parts of the TAKS Review:

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