Posted by: Ed Darrell | April 25, 2011

TAKS Review 2011, Part 5: Gilded Age, Progressive Era, Era of Imperialism

Courtesy of George Blair’s site to assist students at Samuel Clemens High School in Schertz, Texas — from his Big Stick Social Studies site — a review of things you need to know for the Late 19th Century (The Gilded Age) — including the Age of Imperialism — which should help get you through the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) for Social Studies (11th grade, or Exit Level):

Late 19th Century (The Gilded Age), 1877-1898

Free enterprise system All economic systems answer the following 3 questions – WHAT should be produced? HOW should it be produced? WHO should it go to? In the free enterprise system, people are free to produce what they can and to buy what they can afford, the interaction of decisions in the market by producers and consumers determines what is produced
Market-oriented agriculture Growing crops and raising animals for sale in the market to make a profit, instead of just to feed one family
Farm issues Issues surrounding the production of agricultural products. The main issues were the high cost of transportation (caused railroad monopolies), low prices for farm products (caused by overproduction), and mortgaged farms in order to buy seed and supplies.
Industrialization Production of goods and products in factories by machines; “Second Industrial Revolution” occurred in the late 19th century (after the Civil War), and led to more goods being produced at lower prices; new sources of energy replaced human and animal power (whale oil, water power, steam power from coal, and then petroleum after 1859), factories and machines replaced the production of goods by hand (cottage industry), farmers left the countryside to work in cities, while population growth increased; immigrants from foreign nations also streamed into cities to get jobs in factories
Commercial industry Products usually made in a factory by a machine to sell to consumers in a market; production of manufactured goods in a market economic system
Big business Large companies that control major portions of the economy, owners of big businesses became politically powerful because of their wealth from profits
Labor union Workers who band together to demand better working conditions, shorter hours, and higher pay, COLLECTIVE BARGAINING allows all in the union to benefit equally when the union bargains with business management for these things.
Child labor Children under 14 years were exploited (taken advantage of) as workers, children were often forced to do dangerous jobs or work long hours for low pay in factories (mills), farms, and mines
Population growth Increase in the number of people in an area (state, region, country) as result of increases in food/resources, migration, immigration
Migration Process of people moving to a new place to stay permanently or for a long time
Immigration Movement of people out of one country and into another. Note: people EMIgrate out of one country and IMMIgrate into another.
Minority group Any group of persons identified by race, ethnicity, religion, etc., and numbering less than 50 percent of total population.
Urbanization Major move from countryside to cities in late 19th century, caused growth of cities; four major problems resulted:  inadequate public services, overcrowding, social tensions, and corruption
Economic growth The growth of the economy of nation as measured by its gross domestic product (GDP) and at the personal level by per capita GDP
Standard of living Level of development in a country, measured by factors like the amount of personal income, levels of education, food consumption, life expectancy, availability of health care, ways natural resources are used, level of technology
Scientific discoveries Technological improvements based on science such as the telephone, radio, airplanes, television, medicine vaccinations, etc.
Technological innovations New ways of doing things which are based on a technology, major changes that improve how people live, examples:  fire, agriculture (including plows and reaping machines), writing, electricity, industry, telephones, airplanes, computers, A/C
Telegraph New form of communication over long distance, patented by Samuel Morse in 1837, messages were sent using a code (Morse Code) in a matter of seconds through wires carrying electrical signals
Railroads Helped westward expansion of the US by carrying large amounts of goods, cattle, and people; main means of transportation in US from 1840s to 1940s, railroads also became powerful politically.

Watch for the other parts of the 2011 TAKS Review series:

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